tutorial

JIRA Software を使用したスクラムの学習

スクラムプロジェクトの進め方ガイド

クレア・メイナード クレア・メイナード

スクラムのチュートリアル

In this tutorial, we'll give you step-by-step instructions on how to drive a scrum project, prioritize and organize your backlog into sprints, run scrum ceremonies and more, all within Jira Software.

Time:

読む時間 10 分。2 週間で完了

 

Audience:

You are new to scrum, agile software development, or Jira Software

 

Prerequisite:

You have created a Jira Software account

無料トライアル

スクラムとは何か

Scrum is one of the most popular frameworks for implementing agile. With scrum, the product is built in a series of fixed-length iterations called sprints that give teams a framework for shipping on a regular cadence.

 

Step 1: Create a scrum project

Once you create and log in to an account in Jira Software, you can create a project. When you're prompted to select a project template, select Scrum. Otherwise, you can learn how to create a Kanban project here.

Alternatively, if you’re looking for a simpler and more streamlined experience, consider giving our next-gen Scrum template a try. See Getting started with next-gen projects at the Atlassian Community to learn more.

Once you've created your project, you will land on the empty backlog. The backlog is also known as the product backlog and contains an ongoing list of your team's potential work items for the project.

ステップ 2:バックログでのユーザーストーリーまたはタスクの作成

In Jira Software, we call work items like user stories, tasks, and bugs "issues". Create a few user stories with the quick create option on the backlog. If you don't have user stories in mind, just create sample stories to get started and see how the process works.

 

Creating user stories | Atlassian agile coach
What are user stories?

User stories are used to describe work items in a non-technical language and from a user's perspective. . As a {type of user}, I want {goal} so that I {receive benefit}.

 

単純な例として、Web サイトを使用してユーザーストーリーを作成してみましょう。

 

As a customer, I want to be able to create an account so that I can see my previous purchases.

 

User stories are usually sketched out and prioritized by the product owner, and then the development team determines detailed tasks necessary to complete the story in an upcoming sprint. The development team is also responsible for estimating the relative effort required to complete the work of the story.  

Once you've created a few user stories, you can start prioritizing them in the backlog. In Jira Software, you rank or prioritize your stories by dragging and dropping them in the order that they should be worked on.

These are just the starting stories for your project. You will continue to create stories for the project's lifetime. This is because agility involves continuously learning and adapting.

Step 3: Create a sprint

Create your first sprint in the backlog so you can start planning the sprint.

What is a sprint?

In Scrum, teams forecast to complete a set of user stories or other work items during a fixed time duration, known as a sprint. Generally speaking, sprints are one, two, or four weeks long. It's up to the team to determine the length of a sprint — we recommend starting with two weeks. That's long enough to get something accomplished, but not so long that the team isn't getting regular feedback. Once a sprint cadence is determined, the team perpetually operates on that cadence. Fixed length sprints reinforce estimation skills and predict the future velocity for the team as they work through the backlog.

Creating a sprint | Atlassian Agile Coach

Step 4: Hold the sprint planning meeting

At the beginning of a sprint, you should hold the sprint planning meeting with the rest of your team. The sprint planning meeting is a ceremony that sets up the entire team for success throughout the sprint. In this meeting, the entire team discusses the sprint goal and the stories in the prioritized product backlog. The development team creates detailed tasks and estimates for the high-priority stories. The development team then commits to completing a certain number of stories in the sprint. These stories and the plan for completing them become what is known as the sprint backlog.

Add story point estimates to your stories by adding a number in the Story point estimate field. You can also add more details to the stories or click the create subtask icon to further break down the work of the story.

Creating a sprint | Atlassian Agile Coach

When you're ready, drag the stories agreed to in the sprint planning meeting into the sprint that you just created. This is your sprint backlog.

スプリント計画ミーティングとは何か

Attendees: Required: development team, scrum master, product owner

 

When: At the beginning of a sprint.

 

Duration: Usually two hours per week of iteration – e.g. a two-week sprint kicks off with a four-hour planning meeting. The meeting ends when its purpose has been achieved.

 

Purpose: Plan the work of the sprint. The team agrees to the sprint goal and the sprint backlog.

What is a sprint goal?

When creating a sprint, the product owner usually identifies a sprint goal. This provides a theme for the work to be completed in the sprint. A sprint goal also provides some flexibility in the number of stories that are completed in a sprint. A sprint is considered a success if the sprint goal is achieved.

What is agile estimation?

Traditional software teams give estimates in a time format: days, weeks, months.
Many agile teams, however, have transitioned to story points. Story points rate the relative effort of work, often in a Fibonacci-like format: 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 20, 40, 100. 

Estimates help you gauge how much work you should add to the next sprint based on the number of team members you have. After a few sprints, your team will get better at figuring out how much work they can do each sprint, which will help avoid over-committing.

Step 5: Start the sprint in Jira

Name the sprint. Some teams name the sprint based on their sprint goal. If there is a commonality between the issues in the sprint, name the sprint around that theme. Otherwise, you can name the sprint whatever you like.

Add a duration of the sprint and start and end dates. The start and end dates should align to your team's schedule. For example, some teams start sprints on a Monday and then end on a Friday morning in the next week. Other teams decide to start and end their sprints mid-week. It's up to you! If you're unsure how long your sprints should be, we recommend trying two weeks.

Add the sprint goal as agreed to in the sprint planning meeting.

スプリントを開始したら、プロジェクト内の [Active sprints (アクティブなスプリント)] タブが開きます。

Active sprints | Atlassian Agile Coach

ここでは、チームは [To Do] 列から項目を選択し、[In-Progress (進行中)]、最終的には [Done (完了)] 列に移動します。

If you’re using the next-gen Scrum template, this will be called Board.

Step 6: Hold the daily standup meetings

スプリントを開始した後、チームは全員が取り組んでいるものを確認するために、通常は毎朝ミーティングをします。この目的は、チームの誰かにスプリントタスクの完了を妨げる障害が発生していないかを確認することです。

毎日のスタンドアップミーティングとは何か

Attendees (Primarily): development team

 

When: Once per day, typically in the morning

 

Duration: No more than 15 minutes. Don't book a conference room and conduct the standup sitting down. Standing up helps keep the meeting short!

 

Purpose: The daily standup is designed to inform everyone quickly of what's going on across the team and to plan the work of the day. It's not a full status meeting. The tone should be light and fun, but informative. Have each team member answer the following questions:

 

  • 昨日何を完了したか?
  • 今日何に取り組むか?
  • 何かにブロックされていることはあるか?

 

同僚の前で昨日完了したことを報告する暗黙の説明責任があります。常に同じことを行い、進歩しないチームメンバーには誰もなりたくなりません。

 

ProTip: Some teams use timers to keep everyone on track. Others toss a ball across the team to make sure everyone's paying attention. Many distributed teams use video-conferencing or group chat to close the distance gap. Your team is unique — your standup should be, too!

You can use the active sprints of your scrum board during the daily standup, so that each member can view the tasks they're working on.

Step 7: View the Burndown Chart

It's a good idea to check the Burndown Chart during a sprint. In Jira Software, the Burndown Chart shows the actual and estimated amount of work to be done in a sprint. The Burndown Chart is automatically updated by Jira as you complete work items. To view this chart, click Reports from the sidebar, and then select the Burndown Chart from the reports dropdown.

バーンダウンチャートの内容とその解釈方法

A Burndown Chart shows the actual and estimated amount of work to be done in a sprint. The horizontal x-axis in a Burndown Chart indicates time, while the vertical y-axis typically indicates story points.

 

バーンダウンチャートを使用して、スプリントの残りの全作業量を追跡し、スプリントの目標を達成できる可能性を予測できます。反復全体で残りの作業を追跡することで、チームは進捗状況を管理し、適切に対応することができます。

Agile burndown chart | Atlassian Agile Coach
注意すべきアンチパターン
  • チームがスプリントを次々と早期終了するのは、十分な作業を行っていないから。
  • チームのスプリントの予測が外れ続けるのは、コミットする作業量が多すぎるから。
  • バーンダウンラインが徐々に低下するのではなく急低下するのは、作業を細かく分割していないから。
  • プロダクトオーナーがスプリントの途中でスコープを追加または変更してしまう。

Step 8: View the sprint report

At any point during or after the sprint, you can view the Sprint Report to monitor the sprint.

What is the sprint report?

The Sprint Report includes the Burndown Chart, and lists the work completed, work not completed, and any work added after the sprint started.

 

Step 9: Hold the sprint review meeting

The sprint review, or sprint demo, is a sharing meeting where the team shows what they've shipped in that sprint. Each sprint usually produces a working part of the product called an increment.

This is a meeting with a lot of feedback on the project and includes a brainstorming session to help decide what to do next.

Attendees (Primarily): development team, scrum master, product owner.
Optional: stakeholders

 

When: Typically on the last day of the sprint

 

Duration: Typically two hours for a two-week sprint

 

Purpose: Inspect the increment and collaboratively update the product backlog.

 

確認事項:

 

  • チームはスプリントの予測に間に合ったか?
  • スプリントの途中で追加または削除した作業はあったか?
  • スプリントの期間内に完了できなかった作業はあったか?
  • 該当する場合、その理由は?

ステップ 10:スプリントのふりかえりミーティングの開催

After you complete the sprint, have your team do a retrospective. Document your retrospective somewhere. May we suggest Confluence?

スプリントのふりかえりミーティングとは何か

Attendees: development team, scrum master, product owner.

 

When: At the end of an iteration.

 

Duration:  Typically 90 minutes for a two-week sprint.

 

Purpose: The team inspects itself, including its processes, tools and team interaction. Improvement issues are often added to the next sprint's backlog.

 

ふりかえりは、アクションを行わずに苦情を伝えるだけの時間ではありません。ふりかえりを使用して何が上手く行っていたかを見つけ出し、チームがそれらの分野に引き続き集中できるようにします。また、何が上手く行かなかったかを見つけ出し、クリエイティブなソリューションの発見とアクション計画の作成に時間をかけます。継続的な改善により、アジャイルチームは開発を維持して推進することができます。ふりかえりはその重要な部分です。

 

確認事項:

 

  • スプリント中に上手く機能したのは何か?
  • 改善できる点は何か?
  • 次回の作業では何を改善するか?

 

ProTip: Even if things are going well across the team, don't stop doing retrospectives. Retrospectives provide ongoing guidance for the team to keep things going well.

Step 11: Complete the sprint in Jira

スプリントの終了時にスプリントを完了する必要があります。

If the sprint has incomplete issues, you can:

  • Move the issue(s) to the backlog.
  • Move the issue(s) to a future sprint.
  • Move the issue(s) to a new sprint, which Jira will create for you.

Step 12: Repeat from step 2

この時点で、ユーザーストーリーを含めたバックログの作成、スプリントへのユーザーストーリーの整理、スプリントの開始、スクラムセレモニーの実施に関する基礎を習得しました。これがチームで上手く機能しているか、またはさらに高度なトピックに進んで学習するかをここで決断できます。

 After you and your team have mastered the steps above. Move on to the advanced article: How to do advanced scrum practices with Jira Software.